This is the super typhoon Neoguri that's currently threatening Japan. It looks intimidating, even from the comfort of the International Space Station.
The Japanese meteorological agency reckons it's the strongest typhoon of the year so far, and that it could generate winds of up to 170 mph and waves 45 feet in height. Authorities in the country are in the process of evacuating 500,000 people, closing schools and cancelling hundreds of flights to safeguard against its effects. [Reid Wiseman, Alexander Gerst]