Paris is one of the world's most beautiful cities, with its landmarks, parks and the cobbled roads of Montmarte the envy of the world. Architectural progress can sometimes meet opposition when a city's iconic sights and historic look is challenged, but architects Vincent Callebaut's vision of a green, sustainable Paris is so gorgeous, it makes the glorious French capital look even more magical.
The 2050 Paris Smart City project was commissioned by Paris's City Hall, as it looks at ways to reduce the capital's greenhouse gas emissions by 75 per cent by 2050.
With input from engineering firm Setec Bâtiment, Vincent Callebaut envision great residential towers featuring photovoltaic and thermal shields, producing electricity and heating water. Rainwater would be collected for "reversible hydro-electrical" pumps too for generating power cleanly.
Other mad ideas include vertical parks with "algae bioreactors", bamboo towers with vegetable gardens and bridges that seem inspired by jellyfish.
It's a drastic overhaul of the city, and one that is unlikely to ever approach reality, at least in our lifetimes. But with the designs also supporting increased population numbers, such designs will increasingly have to be taken into consideration by future city planners.